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In CL the runtime is:

  • based on references
  • fast on managing consed lists
  • conses lists supports a poor-man persistent data structure
  • stack based
  • supports goto, labels and unstructured programming
  • can unwind the stack, for managing error-exceptions
  • every reference at run-time stores its type
  • fast integers have one bit to 0
  • other pointers and big number have one bit to 1

Macros can take advantage of this rich run-time for compiling “declarative” code to fast, unstructured code.